One theme that I have noticed recurring throughout the FDR podcast is the concept of thinking properly. For all that many people take that skill for granted, most of them either never learned how or were taught (deliberately or otherwise) ineffective or incorrect methods of thinking.
I am often impressed by Stefan's ability to find empirical evidence to back up his theoretical findings, as well as pull out the essential concepts from opponents' arguments. I don't always agree with his conclusions (I'd hate be be accused of being patronizing, after all ), but I am always fascinated by his methods.
About 21/2 years ago, I listened to Barbara Branden's course, "Efficient Thinking". By the end of the course, I had noticed such amazing changes in my methods of thinking that I purchased the entire course for myself (some 20 CDs) and listened to it a second time. It has been a tremendous help, and I would highly recommend it to anyone who wants to train his thinking skills.
The course was until recently sold through Audio Forum, which is now out of business, so unfortunately, I do not know where one might acquire a [licensed] copy of it.
I've recognized some areas where my skills could use some improvement, especially when it comes to maintaining focus and recognizing when an argument is being made from false premises (I still have a nasty habit of assuming any piece of information that I hear is true until/unless I can find evidence to the contrary rather than the other way around).
Have you come across any resources for learning how to think/reason more effectively that you can recommend?